Wednesday, May 18, 2016


Romania Population: 22,246,862
BackgroundThe principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they united in 1859 and a few yrs later adopted the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three yrs later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdiion of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became incrsingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.Map data ©2009 Europa Technologies - Terms of Use
GeographyControls most sily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine.Loion:Southstern Europe, bordering the Black S, between Buaria and UkraineGeographic coordinates:46 00 N, 25 00 r:total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water: 7,160 sq kmSize comparison: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land Boundaries:total: 2,508 km
border countries: Buaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (st) 169 kmCoastline:225 kmMaritime claims:territorial s: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of ationClimate:temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstormsTerrain:central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the st by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian AlpsElevation extremes:lowest point: Black S 0 m
highest point: Moldovnu 2,544 mNatural resources:petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropowerLand use:arable land: 39.49%
permanent crops: 1.92%
other: 58.59% (2005)Irrigated land:30,770 sq km (2003)Natural hazards:rthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslidesCurrent Environment Issues:soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlandsInternational Environment Agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Trty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertifiion, Endangered Species, Environmental Modifiion, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the S, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
PeoplePopulation:22,246,862 (July 2008 est.)Age structure:0-14 yrs: 15.6% (male 1,778,864/female 1,687,659)
15-64 yrs: 69.7% (male 7,718,125/female 7,791,102)
65 yrs and over: 14.7% (male 1,337,915/female 1,933,197) (2008 est.)Median age:total: 37.3 yrs
male: 35.9 yrs
female: 38.7 yrs (2008 est.)Population growth rate:-0.136% (2008 est.)Birth rate:10.61 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)Dth rate:11.84 dths/1,000 population (2008 est.)Net migration rate:-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 yrs: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 yrs: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 yrs and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2008 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 23.73 dths/1,000 live births
male: 26.81 dths/1,000 live births
female: 20.46 dths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.18 yrs
male: 68.69 yrs
female: 75.89 yrs (2008 est.)Total fertility rate:1.38 children born/woman (2008 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:6,500 (2001 est.)HIV/AIDS - dths:350 (2001 est.)Nationality:noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: RomanianEthnic groups:Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002 census)Religions:stern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman holic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1% (2002 census)Languages:Romanian 91% (official), Hungarian 6.7%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 1.2%Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can rd and write
total population: 97.3%
male: 98.4%
female: 96.3% (2002 census)
GovernmentCountry name:conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: RomaniaGovernment type:republicCapital:name: Bucharest
geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahd of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in OctoberAdministrative divisions:41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Nmt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Sucva, Teleorman, Timis, Tulc, Vaslui, Vilc, VrancIndependence:9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Trty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)National holiday:Unifiion Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)Constitution:8 December 1991; revision effective 29 October 2003Legal system:based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdictionSuffrage:18 yrs of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004); note - President Traian BASESCU was suspended by vote of parliament on 19 April 2007, but resumed his duties on 23 May 2007 after a popular referendum confirmed that his impchment should not stand
hd of government: Prime Minister Emil BOC (since 22 December 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-yr term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 November 2004 with runoff between the top two candidates held 12 December 2004 (next to be held in November-December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
election results: percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 51.23%, Adrian NASTASE 48.77%Legislative branch:bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (137 sts; members are elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-yr terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (334 sts; members are elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-yr terms)
elections: Senate - last held 30 November 2008 (next expected to be held in November 2012); Chamber of Deputies - last held 30 November 2008 (next expected to be held November 2012)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PC 34.2%, PDL 33.6%, PNL 18.7%, UDMR 6.4%, other 7.1%; sts by alliance/party - PSD-PC 49, PDL 51, PNL 28, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PC 33.1%, PDL 32.4%, PNL 18.6%, UDMR 6.2%, ethnic minorities 3.6%, other 6.1%; sts by alliance/party - PSD-PC 114, PDL 115, PNL 65, UDMR 22, ethnic minorities 18Judicial branch:Supreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed for three-yr terms by the president in consultation with the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor eral, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Constitutional Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, trties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-yr terms, with three members ch appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of DeputiesPolitical parties and lders:Conservative Party or PC [Daniela POPA] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR); Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Emil BOC]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Calin Popescu-TARICNU]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Mirc Dan GEOANA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)Political pressure groups and lders:other: various human rights and professional associationsInternational organization participation:Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, PC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU (new member), FAO, G-9, IA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, Ziplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Adrian Cosmin VIERITA
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) eral: Chicago, Los Angeles, New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge D'Affaires Jeri GUTHRIE-CORN
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
EconomyRomania, which joined the Europn Union on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-yr recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Domestic consumption and investment have fueled strong GDP growth in recent yrs, but have led to large current account imbalances. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur crtion of a middle class and address Romania's widesprd poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to handicap its business environment. Inflation rose in 2007-08, driven in part by the depreciation of the currency, rising energy costs, a nation-wide drought affecting food prices, and a relaxation of fiscal discipline. Romania hopes to adopt the euro by 2014.GDP (purchasing power parity):$278.4 billion (2008 est.)GDP (official exchange rate):$213.9 billion (2008 est.)GDP - rl growth rate:8% (2008 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$12,500 (2008 est.)GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 8.1%
industry: 36%
services: 55.9% (2008 est.)Labor force:9.32 million (2008 est.)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 29.7%
industry: 23.2%
services: 47.1% (2006)Unemployment rate:3.6% (2008 est.)Population below poverty line:25% (2005 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 20.8% (2006)Distribution of family income - Gini index:31 (2005)Inflation rate (consumer prices):7.8% (2008 est.)Investment (gross fixed):31.5% of GDP (2008 est.)Budget:revenues: $64.44 billion
expenditures: $71.16 billion (2008 est.)Public debt:14.1% of GDP (2008 est.)Agriculture - products:
Industries:electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwr, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refiningIndustrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:58.25 billion kWh (2007 est.)Electricity - consumption:48.43 billion kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - exports:3.362 billion kWh (2007 est.)Electricity - imports:1.277 billion kWh (2007 est.)Oil - production:112,400 bbl/day (2007 est.)Oil - consumption:238,200 bbl/day (2006 est.)Oil - exports:125,200 bbl/day (2005)Oil - imports:219,000 bbl/day (2005)Oil - proved reserves:600 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)Natural gas - production:12.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)Natural gas - consumption:17.09 billion cu m (2007)Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - imports:4.8 billion cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - proved reserves:63 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)Current account balance:-$28.03 billion (2008 est.)Exports:$59.75 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Exports - commodities:machinery and equipment, textiles and footwr, metals and metal products, machinery and equipment, minerals and fuels, chemicals, agricultural productsExports - partners:Italy 17.2%, Germany 16.9%, France 7.7%, Tur 7%, Hungary 5.6%, UK 4.1% (2007)Imports:$92.09 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment, fuels and minerals, chemicals, textile and products, metals, agricultural productsImports - partners:Germany 17.2%, Italy 12.8%, Hungary 6.9%, Russia 6.3%, France 6.2%, Tur 5.4%, Austria 4.8% (2007)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$44.47 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Debt - external:$92.76 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$72.82 billion (2008 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$1.015 billion (2008 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$44.93 billion (31 December 2007)Currency ():"new" leu (RON) was introduced in 2005; "old" leu (ROL) was phased out in 2006; note - because of currency revaluation, 10,000 ROL = 1 RONExchange rates:lei (RON) per US dollar - 2.5 (2008 est.), 2.43 (2007), 2.809 (2006), 3 (2005), 3 (2004)Fiscal yr:calendar yr
CommuniionsTele in use:4.3 million (2007)Cellular in use:22.875 million (2007)Telephone system:eral assessment: domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially in wireless telephony
domestic: more than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; liberalization in 2003 is transforming telecommuniions; fixed-line teledensity is roughly 20 tele per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity now slightly exceeds 100 tele per 100 persons
international: country - 40; the Black S Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Buaria and Tur; satellite rth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2007)Radio broadcast stations:698 (frequency type NA) (2006)Television broadcast stations:623 (plus 200 repters) (2006)Internet country :.roInternet hosts:2.195 million (2008)Internet users:12 million (2007)
TransportationAirports:61 (2007)Airports (paved runways):total: 25
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)Airports (unpaved runways):total: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 22 (2007)Heliports:2 (2007)Pipelines:gas 3,674 km; oil 2,424 km (2007)Railways:total: 10,789 km
broad gauge: 57 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,731 km 1.435-m gauge (3,965 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1 km 0.760-m gauge (2007)Roadways:total: 198,817 km
paved: 60,043 km (includes 228 km of expressways)
unpaved: 138,774 km (2004)Waterways:1,731 km
note: includes 1,075 km on Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals (2006)Merchant marine:total: 17
by type: cargo 11, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
registered in other countries: 49 (Cambodia 1, Georgia 16, North Kor 4, Liberia 2, Malta 8, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 3, Panama 7, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 3, Syria 2) (2008)Ports and terminals:Braila, Constanta, Galati, Tulc
Military branches:Land Forces, Naval Forces, Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR), Special Operations (2009)Military service age and obligation:18 yrs of age for voluntary military service; conscription officially ended October 2006; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-yr term of service; subsequent voluntary service contracts are for successive 3-yr terms until the age of 36 (2006)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 5,682,299
females age 16-49: 5,557,098 (2008 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 4,572,017
females age 16-49: 4,644,474 (2008 est.)

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