Wednesday, May 18, 2016

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia Population: 28,146,656

Saudi Arabia is the birtlace of Islam and home to Islam's two holiest shrines in Mecca and Medina. The king's official title is the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The modern Saudi state was founded in 1932 by ABD AL-AZIZ bin Abd al-Rahman AL SAUD (Ibn Saud) after a 30-yr campaign to unify most of the Arabian Peninsula. A male descendent of Ibn Saud, his son ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz, rules the country today as required by the country's 1992 Basic Law. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following yr. The continuing presence of foreign troops on Saudi soil after the liberation of Kuwait became a source of tension between the royal family and the public until all operational US troops left the country in 2003. Major terrorist attacks in May and November 2003 spurred a strong on-going campaign against domestic terrorism and extremism. King ABDALLAH has continued the cautious reform program begun when he was crown prince. To promote incrsed political participation, the government held elections nationwide from February through April 2005 for half the members of 179 municipal councils. In December 2005, King ABDALLAH completed the process by appointing the remaining members of the advisory municipal councils. The country remains a lding producer of oil and natural gas and holds more than 20% of the world's proven oil reserves. The government continues to pursue economic reform and diversifiion, particularly since Saudi Arabia's accession to the WTO in December 2005, and promotes foreign investment in the kingdom. A burgeoning population, aquifer depletion, and an economy largely dependent on petroleum output and prices are all ongoing governmental concerns.

Map data ©2009 Europa Technologies - Terms of Use

Extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red S provide grt leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal.
Middle st, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red S, north of Yemen
Geographic coordinates:
25 00 N, 45 00 E
total: 2,149,690 sq km
land: 2,149,690 sq km
water: 0 sq kmSize comparison: slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US
Land Boundaries:
total: 4,431 km
border countries: Iraq 814 km, Jordan 744 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km
2,640 km
Maritime claims:
territorial s: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: not specified
harsh, dry desert with grt temperature extremes
mostly uninhabited, sandy desert
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal Sawda' 3,133 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Land use:
arable land: 1.67%
permanent crops: 0.09%
other: 98.24% (2005)
Irrigated land:
16,200 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
frequent sand and dust storms
Current Environment Issues:
desertifiion; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive swater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills
International Environment Agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertifiion, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the S, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

28,146,656 note: includes 5,576,076 non-nationals (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 yrs: 38% (male 5,458,023/female 5,245,911)
15-64 yrs: 59.5% (male 9,470,353/female 7,284,696)
65 yrs and over: 2.4% (male 356,910/female 330,764) (2008 est.)
Median age:
total: 21.5 yrs
male: 22.9 yrs
female: 19.8 yrs (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.954% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
28.85 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Dth rate:
2.49 dths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 yrs: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 yrs: 1.3 male(s)/female
65 yrs and over: 1.08 male(s)/female
total population: 1.19 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 11.94 dths/1,000 live births
male: 13.58 dths/1,000 live births
female: 10.23 dths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.09 yrs
male: 74.04 yrs
female: 78.25 yrs (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.89 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.01% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - dths:
noun: Saudi(s)
adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian
Ethnic groups:
Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
Muslim 100%
definition: age 15 and over can rd and write
total population: 78.8%
male: 84.7%
female: 70.8% (2003 est.)

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
conventional short form: Saudi Arabia
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
Government type:
name: Riyadh
geographic coordinates: 24 38 N, 46 43 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahd of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah (stern Province), 'Asir, Ha'il, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk
23 September 1932 (unifiion of the kingdom)
National holiday:
Unifiion of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)
governed according to Islamic law; the Basic Law that articulates the government's rights and responsibilities was promuated by royal decree in 1992
Legal system:
based on Sharia law, several secular have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
21 yrs of age; male
Executive branch:
chief of state: King and Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 1 August 2005); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SULTAN bin Abd al- Aziz Al Saud (half brother of the monarch); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and hd of government
hd of government: King and Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 1 August 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by the monarch every four yrs and includes many royal family members
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; note - a new Allegiance Commission crted by royal decree in October 2006 established a committee of Saudi princes that will play a role in selecting future Saudi kings, but the new system will not take effect until after Crown Prince Sultan becomes king
Legislative branch:
Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (150 members and a chairman appointed by the monarch for four-yr terms); note - though the Council of Ministers announced in October 2003 its intent to introduce elections for half of the members of local and provincial assemblies and a third of the members of the national Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura, incrementally over a period of four to five yrs, to date no such elections have been held or announced
Judicial branch:
Supreme Council of Justice
Political parties and lders:
Political pressure groups and lders:
Ansar Al Marah (supports women's rights)
other: gas companies; religious groups
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Adil al-Ahmad al-JUBAYR
chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-3800
FAX: [1] (202) 944-3113
consulate(s) eral: Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ford M. FRAKER
embassy: Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh
mailing address: American Embassy, Unit 61307, APO AE 09803-1307; International Mail: P. O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693
telephone: [966] (1) 488-3800
FAX: [966] (1) 488-7360
consulate(s) eral: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)

Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. It possesses more than 20% of the world's proven petroleum reserves, ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a lding role in OPEC. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues, 45% of GDP, and 90% of export rnings. About 40% of GDP comes from the private sector. Roughly 5.5 million foreign workers play an important role in the Saudi economy, particularly in the oil and service sectors. High oil prices through mid-2008 have boosted growth, government revenues, and Saudi ownership of foreign assets, while enabling Riyadh to pay down domestic debt. The government is encouraging private sector growth - especially in power eration, telecommuniions, natural gas exploration, and petrochemicals - to lessen the kingdom's dependence on oil exports and to incrse employment opportunities for the swelling Saudi population, nrly 40% of which are youths under 15 yrs old. Unemployment is high, and the large youth population erally lacks the eduion and technical skills the private sector needs. Riyadh has substantially boosted spending on job training and eduion, infrastructure development, and government salaries. As part of its effort to attract foreign investment and diversify the economy, Saudi Arabia acceded to the WTO in December 2005 after many yrs of negotiations. The government has announced plans to establish six "economic cities" in different regions of the country to promote development and diversifiion. The last five yrs of high oil prices have given the Kingdom ample financial reserves to manage the impact of the global financial crisis, but tight international credit, falling oil prices, and the global economic slowdown will reduce Saudi economic growth in 2009.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$600.4 billion (2008 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$528.3 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - rl growth rate:
6% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$21,300 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.1%
industry: 61.6%
services: 35.4% (2008 est.)
Labor force:
6.74 million note: about one-third of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 6.7%
industry: 21.4%
services: 71.9% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:
11.8% among Saudi males only (local bank estimate; some estimates range as high as 25%) (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10.3% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
19.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
revenues: $205 billion
expenditures: $146 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt:
17.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:

crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, ammonia, industrial gases, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), cement, fertilizer, plastics, metals, commercial ship repair, commercial aircraft repair, construction
Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - production:
179.1 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
156.8 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production:
10.25 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
2.311 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - exports:
8.9 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - imports:
41,680 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - proved reserves:
266.8 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production:
75.9 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
75.9 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
7.167 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance:
$141 billion (2008 est.)
$329.7 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 90%
Exports - partners:
US 17.1%, Japan 16.3%, South Kor 9.7%, China 8.1%, Taiwan 4.7%, Singapore 4% (2007)
$107.4 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles
Imports - partners:
US 12.6%, China 9.4%, Germany 8.8%, Japan 8.1%, Italy 5%, South Kor 4.9%, UK 4.5% (2007)
Economic aid - donor:
since 2002, Saudi Arabia has provided more than $480 million in budgetary support to the Palestinian Authority, supported Palestinian refugees through contributions to the UN Relief and Works Acy (UNRWA), provided more than $250 million to Arab Lgue funds for the Palestinians, and pledged $500 million in assistance over the next three yrs at the Donors Conference in Dec 2007; pledged $230 million to development in Afghanistan; pledged $1 billion in export guarantees and soft loans to Iraq; pledged $133 million in direct grant aid, $187 million in concessional loans, and $153 million in export credits for Pakistan rthquake relief; pledged a total of $1.59 billion to Lebanon in assistance and deposits to the Central Bank of Lebanon in 2006 and pledged an additional $1.1 billion in rly 2007
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$49.4 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external:
$71.56 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$515.1 billion (31 December 2007)
Currency ():
Saudi riyal (SAR)
Exchange rates:
Saudi riyals (SAR) per US dollar - 3.75 (2008 est.), 3.745 (2007), 3.745 (2006), 3.747 (2005), 3.75 (2004)
Fiscal yr:
calendar yr

Tele in use:
3.996 million (2007)
Cellular in use:
28.381 million (2007)
Telephone system:
eral assessment: modern system
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable systems; mobile-cellular subscribership has been incrsing rapidly
international: country - 966; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and for both the S-ME-WE-3 and S-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Asia, Middle st, Europe, and US; microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; satellite rth stations - 5 sat (3 Atlantic Ocn and 2 Indian Ocn), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocn region)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 43, FM 31, shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
117 (1997)
Internet country :
Internet hosts:
141,232 (2008)
Internet users:
6.2 million (2007)

213 (2007)
Airports (paved runways):
total: 77
over 3,047 m: 32
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways):
total: 136
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 73
914 to 1,523 m: 39
under 914 m: 15 (2007)
8 (2007)
condensate 212 km; gas 1,880 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,183 km; oil 4,521 km; refined products 1,148 km (2007)
total: 1,392 km
standard gauge: 1,392 km 1.435-m gauge (with branch lines and sidings) (2006)
total: 221,372 km
paved: 47,529 km (includes 3,891 km of expressways)
unpaved: 173,843 km (2006)
Merchant marine:
total: 62
by type: cargo 5, chemical tanker 13, container 5, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 20, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 8
foreign-owned: 12 (Egypt 1, Greece 3, Kuwait 7, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 71 (Bahamas 16, Comoros 1, Dominica 2, France 1, Liberia 27, Marshall Islands 5, Norway 3, Panama 16) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Jiddah, Yanbu' al Sinaiyah


Military branches:
Land Forces (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, National Guard, Ministry of Interior Forces (paramilitary)
Military service age and obligation:
18 yrs of age (est.); no conscription (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 8,547,441
females age 16-49: 6,381,098 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 7,398,417
females age 16-49: 5,525,357 (2008 est.)

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