Wednesday, May 18, 2016


Slovakia Population: 5,455,407
BackgroundThe dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I allowed the Slovaks to join the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-dominated stern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate pcefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the Eurozone on 1 January 2009.Map data ©2009 Europa Technologies - Terms of Use
GeographyLandlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys.Loion:Central Europe, south of PolandGeographic coordinates:48 40 N, 19 30 r:total: 48,845 sq km
land: 48,800 sq km
water: 45 sq kmSize comparison: about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land Boundaries:total: 1,474 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 197 km, Hungary 676 km, Poland 420 km, Ukraine 90 kmCoastline:0 km (landlocked)Maritime claims:none (landlocked)Climate:temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid wintersTerrain:rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the southElevation extremes:lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 mNatural resources:brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable landLand use:arable land: 29.23%
permanent crops: 2.67%
other: 68.1% (2005)Irrigated land:1,830 sq km (2003)Natural hazards:NACurrent Environment Issues:air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human hlth risks; acid rain damaging forestsInternational Environment Agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitro Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Trty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertifiion, Endangered Species, Environmental Modifiion, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the S, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
PeoplePopulation:5,455,407 (July 2008 est.)Age structure:0-14 yrs: 16.1% (male 448,083/female 427,643)
15-64 yrs: 71.7% (male 1,947,112/female 1,961,788)
65 yrs and over: 12.3% (male 250,787/female 419,994) (2008 est.)Median age:total: 36.5 yrs
male: 34.8 yrs
female: 38.2 yrs (2008 est.)Population growth rate:0.143% (2008 est.)Birth rate:10.64 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)Dth rate:9.5 dths/1,000 population (2008 est.)Net migration rate:0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 yrs: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 yrs: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 yrs and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2008 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 6.98 dths/1,000 live births
male: 8.15 dths/1,000 live births
female: 5.75 dths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.17 yrs
male: 71.23 yrs
female: 79.32 yrs (2008 est.)Total fertility rate:1.34 children born/woman (2008 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:fewer than 200 (2003 est.)HIV/AIDS - dths:fewer than 100 (2001 est.)Nationality:noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: SlovakEthnic groups:Slovak 85.8%, Hungarian 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)Religions:Roman holic 68.9%, Protestant 10.8%, Greek holic 4.1%, other or unspecified 3.2%, none 13% (2001 census)Languages:Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census)Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can rd and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2001 est.)
GovernmentCountry name:conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska Republika
local short form: SlovenskoGovernment type:parliamentary democracyCapital:name: Bratislava
geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahd of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in OctoberAdministrative divisions:8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, ZilinskyIndependence:1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)National holiday:Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)Constitution:ratified 1 September 1992, effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membershipLegal system:civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian ; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; legal modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theorySuffrage:18 yrs of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004)
hd of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 July 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Dusan CAPLOVIC, Robert KALINAK, Stefan HARABIN, Jan MIKOLAJ (since 4 July 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-yr term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 April and 17 April 2004 (next to be held no later than April 2009); following National Council elections, the lder of the majority party or the lder of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 59.9%, Vladimir MECIAR 40.1%Legislative branch:unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 sts; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-yr terms)
elections: last held 17 June 2006 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - Smer 29.1%, SDKU 18.4%, SMK 11.7%, SNS 11.7%, LS-HZDS 8.8%, KDH 8.3%, other 12%; sts by party - Smer 50, SDKU-DS 31, SMK 20, SNS 19, LS-HZDS 16, KDH 14; note - sts by party as of December 2008 - Smer 50, SDKU-DS 28, SMK 20, SNS 19, LS-HZDS 15, KDH 9, nonaffiliated 9Judicial branch:Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges and appointed by president)Political parties and lders:parties in the Parliament:: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Pal CSAKY]; People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party or SDKU-DS [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA]
selected parties outside the Parliament:: Agrarian Party of the Provinces or ASV [Vladimir GOZORA]; Alliance of the New Citizen or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Peter ZAJAC]; Free Forum [Zuzana MARTINAKOVA]; Mission 21 - New Christian Democracy or MISIA 21 [Ivan SIMKO]; Movement for Democracy or HZD [Jozef GRAPA]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Ladislav KOZMON]; Prosperita Slovenska or PS [Frantisek A. ZVRSKOVEC]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Jozef HRDLICKA]; Slovak People's Party or SLS [Jozef SASIK]; Union of the Workers of Slovakia or ZRS [Jan LUPTAK]Political pressure groups and lders:Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS; Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic; National Union of Employers or RUZ; Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK; The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PASInternational organization participation:Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, PC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, I, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, N, NSG, OAS (observer), OE, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, Ziplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Peter BURIAN
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
consulate(s) eral: Los Angeles, New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Vincent OBSITNIK
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861
EconomySlovakia has made significant economic reforms since its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993. Reforms to the taxation, hlthcare, pension, and social welfare systems helped Slovakia to consolidate its budget and get on track to join the EU in 2004 and to adopt the euro in January 2009. Major privatizations are nrly complete, the banking sector is almost entirely in foreign hands, and the government has helped facilitate a foreign investment boom with business friendly policies such as labor market liberalization and a 19% flat tax. Foreign investment in the automotive sector has been strong. Slovakia's economic growth exceeded expectations in 2001-08 despite the eral Europn slowdown. Unemployment, at an unacceptable 18% in 2003-04, dropped to 7.4% in 2008 but remains the economy's Achilles heel. Despite its 2006 pre-election promises to loosen fiscal policy and reverse the previous DZURINDA government's pro-market reforms, FICO's cabinet has thus far been careful to keep a lid on spending in order to meet euro adoption criteria and has focused on regulating energy and food prices instd.GDP (purchasing power parity):$123.1 billion (2008 est.)GDP (official exchange rate):$100.6 billion (2008 est.)GDP - rl growth rate:7% (2008 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$22,600 (2008 est.)GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 2.6%
industry: 33.4%
services: 64% (2008 est.)Labor force:2.692 million (2008 est.)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture 4.7%, industry 38.8%, construction 56.5%, services 55.9% (2005)Unemployment rate:7.4% (2008 est.)Population below poverty line:21% (2002)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 20.9% (1996)Distribution of family income - Gini index:26 (2005)Inflation rate (consumer prices):4.7% (2008 est.)Investment (gross fixed):25.9% of GDP (2008 est.)Budget:revenues: $44.86 billion
expenditures: $46.96 billion (2008 est.)Public debt:35% of GDP (2008 est.)Agriculture - products:
Industries:metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclr fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; rthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber productsIndustrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:26.17 billion kWh (2007 est.)Electricity - consumption:26 billion kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - exports:11.85 billion kWh (2007 est.)Electricity - imports:12.73 billion kWh (2007 est.)Oil - production:12,770 bbl/day (2007 est.)Oil - consumption:82,860 bbl/day (2007 est.)Oil - exports:72,240 bbl/day (2005)Oil - imports:134,100 bbl/day (2005)Oil - proved reserves:9 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)Natural gas - production:128 million cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - consumption:6.216 billion cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - exports:180 million cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - imports:6.268 billion cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - proved reserves:14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)Current account balance:-$5.359 billion (2008 est.)Exports:$79.12 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Exports - commodities:vehicles 25.9%, machinery and electrical equipment 21.3%, base metals 14.6%, chemicals and minerals 10.1%, plastics 5.4% (2004)Exports - partners:Germany 21.4%, Czech Republic 12.6%, France 6.7%, Italy 6.4%, Poland 6.2%, Hungary 6%, Austria 5.8%, UK 4.8% (2007)Imports:$79.76 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and transport equipment 41.1%, intermediate manufactured goods 19.3%, fuels 12.3%, chemicals 9.8%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 10.2% (2003)Imports - partners:Germany 22.1%, Czech Republic 17.3%, Russia 9.2%, Hungary 6.7%, Austria 5.1%, Poland 4.9%, South Kor 4.7% (2007)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$19.47 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Debt - external:$45.15 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$47.68 billion (2008 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$1.564 billion (2008 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$6.971 billion (31 December 2007)Currency ():Slovak koruna (SKK)Exchange rates:Slovak koruny (SKK) per US dollar - 21.05 (2008 est.), 24.919 (2007), 29.611 (2006), 31.018 (2005), 32.257 (2004)Fiscal yr:calendar yr
CommuniionsTele in use:1.151 million (2007)Cellular in use:6.068 million (2007)Telephone system:eral assessment: Slovakia has a modern telecommuniions system that has expanded dramatically in recent yrs with the growth in cellular services
domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 3 companies provide nationwide cellular services
international: country - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommuniions projects that will incrse the availability of external servicesRadio broadcast stations:AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)Television broadcast stations:80 (national broadcasting 6, regional 7, local 67) (2004)Internet country :.skInternet hosts:717,744 (2008)Internet users:2.35 million (2007)
TransportationAirports:35 (2007)Airports (paved runways):total: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 10 (2007)Airports (unpaved runways):total: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 7 (2007)Heliports:1 (2007)Pipelines:gas 6,769 km; oil 416 km (2007)Railways:total: 3,662 km
broad gauge: 100 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,512 km 1.435-m gauge (1,588 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 50 km (1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge) (2006)Roadways:total: 43,761 km
paved: 38,085 km (includes 316 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,676 km (2006)Waterways:172 km (on Danube River) (2008)Merchant marine:total: 51
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 42, refrigerated cargo 4
foreign-owned: 47 (Buaria 6, Germany 3, Greece 2, Ireland 1, Israel 4, Italy 2, Poland 2, Russia 1, Slovenia 1, Syria 2, Tur 10, Ukraine 12, UK 1) (2008)Ports and terminals:Bratislava, Komarno
Military branches:Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily) (2008)Military service age and obligation:17-30 yrs of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2007)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 1,420,966
females age 16-49: 1,386,259 (2008 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 1,166,833
females age 16-49: 1,156,874 (2008 est.)

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