Wednesday, May 18, 2016


Somalia Population: 9,558,666
BackgroundBritain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup hded by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule that managed to impose a degree of stability in the country for a couple of decades. After the regime's collapse rly in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring self-declared autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims portions of stern Sool and Sanaag. Beginning in 1993, a two-yr UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. A two-yr pce process, led by the Government of Kenya under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia and the formation of an interim government, known as the Somalia Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs). The Somalia TFIs include a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Assembly (TFA), a transitional Prime Minister, Nur "Adde" Hassan HUSSEIN, and a 90-member cabinet. The TFIs are based on the Transitional Federal Charter, which outlines a five-yr mandate lding to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. While its institutions remain wk, the TFG continues to rch out to Somali stakeholders and work with international donors to help build the governance capacity of the TFIs and work towards national elections in 2009. In June 2006, a loose coalition of clerics, business lders, and Islamic court militias known as the Council of Islamic Courts (CIC) defted powerful Mogadishu warlords and took control of the capital. The Courts continued to expand militarily throughout much of southern Somalia and thrtened to overthrow the TFG in Baidoa. Ethiopian and TFG forces, concerned over links between some CIC factions and the al-Qaida st Africa network and the al-Qaida operatives responsible for the bombings of the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, intervened in late December 2006, resulting in the collapse of the CIC as an organization. However, the TFG continues to face violent resistance from extremist elements, such as the al-Shabaab militia previously affiliated with the now-defunct CIC.Map data ©2009 Europa Technologies - Terms of Use
GeographyStrategic loion on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red S and Suez Canal.Loion:stern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocn, st of EthiopiaGeographic coordinates:10 00 N, 49 00 r:total: 637,657 sq km
land: 627,337 sq km
water: 10,320 sq kmSize comparison: slightly smaller than Texas
Land Boundaries:total: 2,340 km
border countries: Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,600 km, Kenya 682 kmCoastline:3,025 kmMaritime claims:territorial s: 200 nmClimate:principally desert; northst monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoonsTerrain:mostly flat to undulating platu rising to hills in northElevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocn 0 m
highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 mNatural resources:uranium and largely uned reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reservesLand use:arable land: 1.64%
permanent crops: 0.04%
other: 98.32% (2005)Irrigated land:2,000 sq km (2003)Natural hazards:recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over stern plains in summer; floods during rainy ssonCurrent Environment Issues:famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human hlth problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertifiionInternational Environment Agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the S, Ozone Layer Protection
PeoplePopulation:9,558,666 note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complied by the large of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2008 est.)Age structure:0-14 yrs: 44.7% (male 2,143,758/female 2,132,869)
15-64 yrs: 52.8% (male 2,525,562/female 2,516,879)
65 yrs and over: 2.5% (male 100,655/female 138,943) (2008 est.)Median age:total: 17.5 yrs
male: 17.4 yrs
female: 17.6 yrs (2008 est.)Population growth rate:2.824% (2008 est.)Birth rate:44.12 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)Dth rate:15.89 dths/1,000 population (2008 est.)Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 yrs: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 yrs: 1 male(s)/female
65 yrs and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 110.97 dths/1,000 live births
male: 120.17 dths/1,000 live births
female: 101.5 dths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 49.25 yrs
male: 47.43 yrs
female: 51.12 yrs (2008 est.)Total fertility rate:6.6 children born/woman (2008 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:1% (2001 est.)HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:43,000 (2001 est.)HIV/AIDS - dths:NANationality:noun: Somali(s)
adjective: SomaliEthnic groups:Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000)Religions:Sunni MuslimLanguages:Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, EnglishLiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can rd and write
total population: 37.8%
male: 49.7%
female: 25.8% (2001 est.)
GovernmentCountry name:conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Somalia
local long form: Jamhuuriyada Demuqraadiga Soomaaliyeed
local short form: Soomaaliya
former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic RepublicGovernment type:no permanent national government; transitional, parliamentary federal governmentCapital:name: Mogadishu
geographic coordinates: 2 04 N, 45 22 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahd of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Gauduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi GalbeedIndependence:1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)National holiday:Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in SomalilandConstitution:25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979 note: the formation of transitional governing institutions, known as the Transitional Federal Government, is currently ongoingLegal system:no national system; a mixture of English common law, Italian law, Islamic Sharia, and Somali customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservationsSuffrage:18 yrs of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: Transitional Federal President Sheikh Sharif AHMED (since 31 January 2009); note - a transitional governing entity with a five-yr mandate, known as the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs), was established in October 2004; the TFIs reloed to Somalia in June 2004
hd of government: Prime Minister Nur HASSAN Hussein (since 24 November 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by the Transitional Federal Assembly
election results: Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed, the former lder of the semi-autonomous Puntland region of Somalia, was elected president by the Transitional Federal AssemblyLegislative branch:unicameral National Assembly
note: unicameral Transitional Federal Assembly (TFA) (275 sts; 244 members appointed by the four major clans (61 for ch clan), 31 sts alloed to smaller clans and subclans)Judicial branch:following the brkdown of the central government, most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or Sharia (Islamic) law with a provision for appl of all sentencesPolitical parties and lders:nonePolitical pressure groups and lders:other: numerous clan and sub-clan factions exist both in support and in opposition to the transitional governmentInternational organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMODiplomatic representation in the US:Somalia does not have an embassy in the US (csed operations on 8 May 1991); note - the TFG is represented in the United States through its Permanent Mission to the United NationsDiplomatic representation from the US:the US does not have an embassy in Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya at United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; mailing address: Unit 64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831; telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000; FAX [254] (20) 363-6157
EconomyDespite the lack of effective national governance, Somalia has maintained a hlthy informal economy, largely based on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommuniions. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export rnings. Nomads and semi-pastoralists, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Livestock, hides, fish, charcoal, and bananas are Somalia's principal exports, while sugar, sorghum, corn, qat, and machined goods are the principal imports. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and sold as scrap metal. Somalia's service sector also has grown. Telecommuniion firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money exchange services have sprouted throughout the country, handling between $500 million and $1 billion in remittances annually. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to the newest electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate and are supported with private-security militias. Somalia's arrrs to the IMF continued to grow in 2008. Statistics on Somalia's GDP, growth, per capita income, and inflation should be viewed skeptically. In late December 2004, a major tsunami caused an estimated 150 dths and resulted in destruction of property in coastal ars.GDP (purchasing power parity):$5.756 billion (2008 est.)GDP (official exchange rate):$2.6 billion (2008 est.)GDP - rl growth rate:2.6% (2008 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$600 (2008 est.)GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 65%
industry: 10%
services: 25% (2000 est.)Labor force:3.7 million (few skilled laborers) (1975)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 71%
industry and services: 29% (1975)Unemployment rate:NA%Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%Inflation rate (consumer prices):NA%; note - businesses print their own money, so inflation rates cannot be sily determinedBudget:revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NAAgriculture - products:
Industries:a few light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communiionIndustrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:280 million kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - consumption:260.4 million kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2007 est.)Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2007 est.)Oil - production:0 bbl/day (2007 est.)Oil - consumption:5,040 bbl/day (2006 est.)Oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2005)Oil - imports:4,772 bbl/day (2005)Oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - proved reserves:5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)Exports:$300 million f.o.b. (2006)Exports - commodities:livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metalExports - partners:UAE 50.7%, Yemen 21%, Oman 6.1% (2007)Imports:$798 million f.o.b. (2006)Imports - commodities:manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qatImports - partners:Djibouti 34.4%, India 9.1%, Kenya 9%, Oman 6%, UAE 5.6%, Yemen 5.5% (2007)Debt - external:$3 billion (2001 est.)Currency ():Somali shilling (SOS)Exchange rates:Somali shillings (SOS) per US dollar - NA (2007), 1,438.3 (2006) official rate; the unofficial black market rate was about 23,000 shillings per dollar as of February 2007 note: the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared independent country not recognized by any foreign government, issues its own currency, the Somaliland shillingFiscal yr:NA
CommuniionsTele in use:100,000 (2007)Cellular in use:600,000 (2007)Telephone system:eral assessment: the public telecommuniions system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private wireless companies offer service in most major cities and charge the lowest international rates on the continent
domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers
international: country - 252; international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite (2001)Radio broadcast stations:AM 0, FM 11 (also 1 station ch in Puntland and Somaliland), shortwave 1 (in Mogadishu) (2001)Television broadcast stations:4 (2 in Mogadishu and 2 in Hargeisa) (2001)Internet country :.soInternet hosts:1 (2008)Internet users:98,000 (2007)
TransportationAirports:67 (2007)Airports (paved runways):total: 7
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)Airports (unpaved runways):total: 60
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 7 (2007)Roadways:total: 22,100 km
paved: 2,608 km
unpaved: 19,492 km (2000)Merchant marine:total: 1
by type: cargo 1
foreign-owned: 1 (UAE 1) (2008)Ports and terminals:Berbera, Kismaayo
Military branches:no national-level armed forces (2008)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 2,181,050
females age 16-49: 2,125,558 (2008 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 1,274,783
females age 16-49: 1,317,991 (2008 est.)

No comments:

Post a Comment