Wednesday, May 18, 2016


Thailand Population: 65,493,296
BackgroundA unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southst Asian country never to have been taken over by a Europn power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US trty ally following the conflict. A military coup in September 2006 ousted then Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat. The interim government held elections in December 2007 that saw the pro-THAKSIN People's Power Party (PPP) emerge at the hd of a coalition government. The anti-THAKSIN People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) in May 2008 began street demonstrations against the new government, eventually occupying the prime minister's in August. Clashes in October 2008 between PAD protesters blocking parliament and police resulted in the dth of at lst two people. The PAD occupied Bangkok's international airports briefly, ending their protests in rly December 2008 following a court ruling that dissolved the ruling PPP and two other coalition parties for election violations. The Democrat Party then formed a new coalition government with the support of some of THAKSIN's former political allies, and ABHISIT Wetchachiwa became prime minister. Since January 2004, thousands have been killed as separatists in Thailand's southern ethnic Malay-Muslim provinces incrsed the violence associated with their cause.Map data ©2009 Europa Technologies - Terms of Use
GeographyControls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore.Loion:Southstern Asia, bordering the Andaman S and the Gulf of Thailand, southst of BurmaGeographic coordinates:15 00 N, 100 00 r:total: 514,000 sq km
land: 511,770 sq km
water: 2,230 sq kmSize comparison: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
Land Boundaries:total: 4,863 km
border countries: Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 kmCoastline:3,219 kmMaritime claims:territorial s: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of ationClimate:tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northst monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humidTerrain:central plain; Khorat Platu in the st; mountains elsewhereElevation extremes:lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 mNatural resources:tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, ld, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable landLand use:arable land: 27.54%
permanent crops: 6.93%
other: 65.53% (2005)Irrigated land:49,860 sq km (2003)Natural hazards:land subsidence in Bangkok ar resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughtsCurrent Environment Issues:air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations thrtened by illegal huntingInternational Environment Agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertifiion, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the S
PeoplePopulation:65,493,296 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher dth rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)Age structure:0-14 yrs: 21.2% (male 7,104,776/female 6,781,453)
15-64 yrs: 70.3% (male 22,763,274/female 23,304,793)
65 yrs and over: 8.5% (male 2,516,721/female 3,022,281) (2008 est.)Median age:total: 32.8 yrs
male: 32 yrs
female: 33.7 yrs (2008 est.)Population growth rate:0.64% (2008 est.)Birth rate:13.57 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)Dth rate:7.17 dths/1,000 population (2008 est.)Net migration rate:NA (2008 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 yrs: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 yrs: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 yrs and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2008 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 18.23 dths/1,000 live births
male: 19.5 dths/1,000 live births
female: 16.89 dths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.83 yrs
male: 70.51 yrs
female: 75.27 yrs (2008 est.)Total fertility rate:1.64 children born/woman (2008 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:1.5% (2003 est.)HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:570,000 (2003 est.)HIV/AIDS - dths:58,000 (2003 est.)Nationality:noun: Thai (singular and plural)
adjective: ThaiEthnic groups:Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%Religions:Buddhist 94.6%, Muslim 4.6%, Christian 0.7%, other 0.1% (2000 census)Languages:Thai, English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialectsLiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can rd and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 94.9%
female: 90.5% (2000 census)
GovernmentCountry name:conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form: Thailand
local long form: Ratcha Anachak Thai
local short form: Prathet Thai
former: SiamGovernment type:constitutional monarchyCapital:name: Bangkok
geographic coordinates: 13 45 N, 100 31 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahd of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, YasothonIndependence:1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)National holiday:Birthday of King PHUMIPHON (BHUMIBOL), 5 December (1927)Constitution:constitution signed by King PHUMIPHON (BHUMIBOL) on 24 August 2007Legal system:based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdictionSuffrage:18 yrs of age; universal and compulsoryExecutive branch:chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet or (BHUMIBOL Adulyadej) (since 9 June 1946)
hd of government: Prime Minister ABHISIT Wetchachiwa, also spelled ABHISIT Vejjajiva (since 17 December 2008); Deputy Prime Minister KORBSAK Saphawasu, also spelled KORBSAK Sabhavasu (since 22 December 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SANAN Kachornprasat, also spelled SANAN Kachornparsart (since 7 February 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SUTHEP Thuksuban, also spelled SUTHEP Thaugsuban (since 22 December 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
note: there is also a Privy Council advising the king
elections: monarch is hereditary; according to 2007 constitution, prime minister is elected from among members of House of Representatives; following national elections for House of Representatives, lder of party that could organize a majority coalition usually was appointed prime minister by king; prime minister is limited to two 4-yr termsLegislative branch:bicameral National Assembly or Rathasapha consisted of the Senate or Wuthisapha (150 sts; 76 members elected by popular vote representing 76 provinces, 74 appointed by judges and independent government bodies; all serve six-yr terms) and the House of Representatives or Sapha Phuthaen Ratsadon (480 sts; 400 members elected from 157 multi-st constituencies and 80 elected on proportional party-list basis of 10 per eight zones or groupings of provinces; all serve four-yr terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 2 March 2008 (next to be held in March 2014); House of Representatives - last election held on 23 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2011)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; sts by party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; sts by party - PPP 233, DP 164, TNP 34, Motherland 24, Middle Way 11, Unity 9, Royalist People's 5
note: 74 senators were appointed on 19 February 2008 by a seven-member committee hded by the chief of the Constitutional Court; 76 senators were elected on 2 March 2008; elections to the Senate are non-partisan; registered political party members are disqualified from being senatorsJudicial branch:Supreme Court or Sandika (judges appointed by the monarch)Political parties and lders:Chat Thai Phattana Party or CP (Thai Nation Development Party) [CHUMPOL Silpa-archa]; Democrat Party or DP (Prachathipat Party) [ABHISIT Wetchachiwa, also spelled ABHISIT Vejjajiva]; Motherland Party (Pheua Phaendin Party) [PRACHA Phromnok]; Phu Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [YONGYUT Wichaidit]; Phumchai (Bhumjai) Thai Party or BJT (Thai Pride) [PHIPHAT Phromwaraphon]; Royalist People's Party (Pracharaj) [SANOH Thienthong]; Ruam Jai Thai Party (Thai Unity Party) [WANNARAT Channukul]Political pressure groups and lders:People's Alliance for Democracy or PAD; United Front for Democracy Against DictatorshipInternational organization participation:ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASN, BIMSTEC, BIS, CP, S, FAO, G-77, IA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires DAMRONG Kraikruan
chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 401, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
consulate(s) eral: Chicago, Los Angeles, New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Eric G. JOHN
embassy: 120-122 Wireless Road, Bangkok 10330
mailing address: APO AP 96546
telephone: [66] (2) 205-4000
FAX: [66] (2) 254-2990, 205-4131
consulate(s) eral: Chiang Mai
EconomyWith a well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, and erally pro-investment policies, Thailand was one of st Asia's best performers from 2002-04, averaging more than 6% annual rl GDP growth. However, overall economic growth has fallen sharply - averaging 4.9% from 2005 to 2007 - as persistent political crisis stalled infrastructure mega-projects, eroded investor and consumer confidence, and damaged the country's international . Exports were the economic driver as foreign investment and consumer demand stalled. Export growth from January 2005 to November 2008 averaged 17.5% annually. Business uncertainty escalated, however, following the September 2006 coup when the military-installed government imposed capital controls and considered far-rching changes to foreign investment rules and other business legislation. Although controversial capital controls have since been lifted and business rules largely remain unchanged, investor sentiment has not recovered. Moreover, the 2008 global financial crisis further darkened Thailand's economic horizon. Continued political uncertainty will hamper resumption of infrastructure mega-projects.GDP (purchasing power parity):$570.1 billion (2008 est.)GDP (official exchange rate):$272.1 billion (2008 est.)GDP - rl growth rate:4.8% (2008 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$8,700 (2008 est.)GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 11.4%
industry: 44.5%
services: 44.1% (2008 est.)Labor force:37.25 million (2008 est.)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 42.6%
industry: 20.2%
services: 37.1% (2005 est.)Unemployment rate:1.4% (2008 est.)Population below poverty line:10% (2004 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 33.4% (2002)Distribution of family income - Gini index:42 (2002)Inflation rate (consumer prices):5.8% (2008 est.)Investment (gross fixed):29.4% of GDP (2008 est.)Budget:revenues: $49.37 billion
expenditures: $54.29 billion (2008 est.)Public debt:38.4% of GDP (2008 est.)Agriculture - products:
Industries:tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producerIndustrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:130.7 billion kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - consumption:123.9 billion kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - exports:731 million kWh (2007 est.)Electricity - imports:4.488 billion kWh (2007 est.)Oil - production:348,600 bbl/day (2007 est.)Oil - consumption:928,600 bbl/day (2006 est.)Oil - exports:207,400 bbl/day (2005)Oil - imports:832,900 bbl/day (2005)Oil - proved reserves:460 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)Natural gas - production:25.4 billion cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - consumption:35.3 billion cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - imports:9.8 billion cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - proved reserves:331.2 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)Current account balance:-$1.064 billion (2008 est.)Exports:$174.9 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Exports - commodities:textiles and footwr, fishery products, rice, rubber, jewelry, automobiles, computers and electrical appliancesExports - partners:US 12.6%, Japan 11.9%, China 9.7%, Singapore 6.3%, Hong Kong 5.7%, Malaysia 5.1% (2007)Imports:$159.1 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Imports - commodities:capital goods, intermediate goods and raw materials, consumer goods, fuelsImports - partners:Japan 20.3%, China 11.6%, US 6.8%, Malaysia 6.2%, UAE 4.9%, Singapore 4.5%, Taiwan 4.1% (2007)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$100.5 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Debt - external:$67.01 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$80.83 billion (2007 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$7.013 billion (2007 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$196 billion (31 December 2007)Currency ():baht (THB)Exchange rates:baht per US dollar - 33.37 (2008 est.), 34.52 (2007), 37.882 (2006), 40.22 (2005), 40.222 (2004)Fiscal yr:1 October - 30 September
CommuniionsTele in use:7.024 million (2007)Cellular in use:51.377 million (2007)Telephone system:eral assessment: high quality system, especially in urban ars like Bangkok
domestic: fixed line system provided by both a government owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly and outpacing fixed lines
international: country - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle st, Europe, and US; satellite rth stations - 2 sat (1 Indian Ocn, 1 Pacific Ocn)Radio broadcast stations:AM 238, FM 351, shortwave 6 (2007)Television broadcast stations:111 (2006)Internet country :.thInternet hosts:1.116 million (2008)Internet users:13.416 million (2007)
TransportationAirports:106 (2007)Airports (paved runways):total: 65
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 6 (2007)Airports (unpaved runways):total: 41
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 28 (2007)Heliports:3 (2007)Pipelines:gas 4,381 km; refined products 320 km (2007)Railways:total: 4,071 km
narrow gauge: 4,071 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)Roadways:total: 180,053 km (includes 450 km of expressways) (2006)Waterways:4,000 km
note: 3,701 km navigable by boats with drafts up to 0.9 m (2008)Merchant marine:total: 398
by type: bulk carrier 53, cargo 135, chemical tanker 15, container 22, liquefied gas 28, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 100, refrigerated cargo 32, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 16 (China 1, Japan 4, Malaysia 3, Singapore 2, Taiwan 1, UK 5)
registered in other countries: 40 (Bahamas 5, Mongolia 1, Panama 10, Singapore 23, Tuvalu 1) (2008)Ports and terminals:Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Prachuap Port, Si Racha
Military branches:Royal Thai Army (RTA), Royal Thai Navy (RTN, includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force (Knogtap Agard Thai, RTAF) (2008)Military service age and obligation:21 yrs of age for compulsory military service; 18 yrs of age for voluntary military service; males are registered at 18 yrs of age; 2-yr conscript service obligation (2006)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 17,553,410
females age 16-49: 17,751,268 (2008 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 12,968,674
females age 16-49: 14,058,779 (2008 est.)

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