Wednesday, May 18, 2016


Tuvalu Population: 12,177
BackgroundIn 1974, ethnic differences within the British colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands caused the Polynesians of the Ellice Islands to vote for separation from the Micronesians of the Gilbert Islands. The following yr, the Ellice Islands became the separate British colony of Tuvalu. Independence was granted in 1978. In 2000, Tuvalu negotiated a contract lsing its Internet domain name "." for $50 million in royalties over a 12-yr period.Map data ©2009 Europa Technologies - Terms of Use
GeographyOne of the smallest and most remote countries on rth; six of the nine coral atolls - Nanum, Nui, Vaitupu, Nukufetau, Funafuti, and Nukulaelae - have lagoons open to the ocn; Nanumaya and Niutao have landlocked lagoons; Niulakita does not have a lagoon.Loion:Ocnia, island group consisting of nine coral atolls in the South Pacific Ocn, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to AustraliaGeographic coordinates:8 00 S, 178 00 r:total: 26 sq km
land: 26 sq km
water: 0 sq kmSize comparison: 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries:0 kmCoastline:24 kmMaritime claims:territorial s: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nmClimate:tropical; moderated by sterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and hvy rain (November to March)Terrain:very low-lying and narrow coral atollsElevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocn 0 m
highest point: unnamed loion 5 mNatural resources:fishLand use:arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 66.67%
other: 33.33% (2005)Irrigated land:NANatural hazards:severe tropical storms are usually rare, but, in 1997, there were three cyclones; low level of islands make them sensitive to changes in s levelCurrent Environment Issues:since there are no strms or rivers and groundwater is not potable, most water needs must be met by chment systems with storage facilities (the Japanese Government has built one desalination plant and plans to build one other); bchhd erosion because of the use of sand for building materials; excessive clrance of forest undergrowth for use as fuel; damage to coral reefs from the sprd of the Crown of Thorns starfish; Tuvalu is concerned about global incrses in greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on rising s levels, which thrten the country's underground water table; in 2000, the government d to Australia and New Zland to take in Tuvaluans if rising s levels should make evacuation necessaryInternational Environment Agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertifiion, Law of the S, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
PeoplePopulation:12,177 (July 2008 est.)Age structure:0-14 yrs: 29.4% (male 1,826/female 1,754)
15-64 yrs: 65.4% (male 3,891/female 4,073)
65 yrs and over: 5.2% (male 236/female 397) (2008 est.)Median age:total: 25.2 yrs
male: 24.2 yrs
female: 26.4 yrs (2008 est.)Population growth rate:1.577% (2008 est.)Birth rate:22.75 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)Dth rate:6.98 dths/1,000 population (2008 est.)Net migration rate:NA (2008 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 yrs: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 yrs: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 yrs and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2008 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 18.97 dths/1,000 live births
male: 21.56 dths/1,000 live births
female: 16.25 dths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 68.97 yrs
male: 66.7 yrs
female: 71.36 yrs (2008 est.)Total fertility rate:2.94 children born/woman (2008 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:NAHIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NAHIV/AIDS - dths:NANationality:noun: Tuvaluan(s)
adjective: TuvaluanEthnic groups:Polynesian 96%, Micronesian 4%Religions:Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i 1%, other 0.6%Languages:Tuvaluan, English, Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui)Literacy:NA
GovernmentCountry name:conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Tuvalu
local long form: none
local short form: Tuvalu
former: Ellice Islands
note: "Tuvalu" mns "group of eight," referring to the country's eight traditionally inhabited islandsGovernment type:constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracyCapital:name: Funafuti
geographic coordinates: 8 30 S, 179 12 E
time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahd of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: administrative s are loed in Vaiaku Village on Fongafale IsletAdministrative divisions:noneIndependence:1 October 1978 (from UK)National holiday:Independence Day, 1 October (1978)Constitution:1 October 1978Legal system:NASuffrage:18 yrs of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor eral Filoim TELITO (since 15 April 2005)
hd of government: Prime Minister Apisai IELEMIA (since 14 August 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor eral on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor eral appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the members of Parliament; election last held 14 August 2006 (next to be held following parliamentary elections in 2010)
election results: Apisai IELEMIA elected Prime Minister in a Parliamentary election on 14 August 2006Legislative branch:unicameral Parliament or Fale I Fono, also called House of Assembly (15 sts; members elected by popular vote to serve four-yr terms)
elections: last held 3 August 2006 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: percent of vote - NA; sts - independents 15Judicial branch:High Court (a chief justice visits twice a yr to preside over its sessions; its rulings can be d to the Court of Appl in Fiji); eight Island Courts (with limited jurisdiction)Political parties and lders:there are no political parties but members of Parliament usually align themselves in informal groupingsPolitical pressure groups and lders:noneInternational organization participation:ACP, ADB, C, FAO, IFRCS (observer), IMO, IOC, ITU, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHODiplomatic representation in the US:Tuvalu does not have an embassy in the US - the country's only diplomatic post is in Fiji - Tuvalu does, however, have a UN loed at 800 2nd Avenue, Suite 400D, New York, NY 10017, telephone: [1] (212) 490-0534Diplomatic representation from the US:the US does not have an embassy in Tuvalu; the US ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tuvalu
EconomyTuvalu consists of a densely populated, stered group of nine coral atolls with poor soil. The country has no known mineral resources and few exports and is almost entirely dependent upon imported food and fuel. Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic activities. Fewer than 1,000 tourists, on average, visit Tuvalu annually. Job opportunities are scarce and public sector workers make up the majority of those employed. About 15% of the adult male population work as smen on merchant ships abroad and remittances are a vital source of income, contributing around $4 million in 2006. Substantial income is received annually from the Tuvalu Trust Fund (TTF), an international trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, NZ, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Kor. Thanks to wise investments and conservative withdrawals, this fund grew from an initial $17 million to an estimated value of $77 million in 2006. The TFF contributed nrly $9 million towards the government budget in 2006 and is an important cushion for meeting shortfalls in the government's budget. The US Government is also a major revenue source for Tuvalu because of payments from a 1988 trty on fisheries. In an effort to ensure financial stability and sustainability, the government is pursuing public sector reforms, including privatization of some government functions and personnel cuts. Tuvalu also derives royalties from the lse of its "." Internet domain name, with revenue of more than $2 million in 2006. A minor source of government revenue comes from the sale of stamps and coins. With merchandise exports only a fraction of merchandise imports, continued reliance must be placed on fishing and telecommuniions fees, remittances from overss workers, official transfers, and income from overss investments. Growing income disparities and the vulnerability of the country to climatic change are among lding concerns for the nation.GDP (purchasing power parity):$14.94 million (2002 est.)GDP (official exchange rate):$14.94 million (2002)GDP - rl growth rate:3% (2006 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$1,600 (2002 est.)GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 16.6%
industry: 27.2%
services: 56.2% (2002)Labor force:3,615 (2004 est.)Labor force - by occupation:note: people make a living mainly through ation of the s, reefs, and atolls and from wages sent home by those abroad (mostly workers in the phosphate industry and sailors)Unemployment rate:NA%Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%Inflation rate (consumer prices):3.8% (2006 est.)Budget:revenues: $21.54 million
expenditures: $23.05 million (2006)Agriculture - products:
Industries:fishing, tourism, copraIndustrial production growth rate:
Current account balance:-$11.68 million (2003)Exports:$1 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)Exports - commodities:copra, fishImports:$12.91 million c.i.f. (2005)Imports - commodities:food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goodsDebt - external:$NACurrency ():Australian dollar (AUD); note - there is also a Tuvaluan dollarExchange rates:Tuvaluan dollars or Australian dollars (AUD) per U 1.2059 (2008 est.), 1.2137 (2007), 1.3285 (2006), 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004)Fiscal yr:calendar yr
CommuniionsTele in use:900 (2005)Cellular in use:1,300 (2005)Telephone system:eral assessment: serves particular needs for internal communiions
domestic: radiotelephone communiions between islands
international: country - 688; international calls can be made by satelliteRadio broadcast stations:AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (2004)Television broadcast stations:0 (2004)Internet country :.Internet hosts:56,209 (2008)Internet users:1,300 (2002)
TransportationAirports:1 (2007)Airports (unpaved runways):total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)Roadways:total: 8 km
paved: 8 km (2002)Merchant marine:total: 80
by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 30, chemical tanker 14, container 2, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 22, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 63 (China 16, Hong Kong 7, Kenya 1, South Kor 1, Malaysia 1, Maldives 1, Norway 1, Russia 2, Singapore 23, Thailand 1, Tur 2, Ukraine 1, US 1, Vietnam 5) (2008)Ports and terminals:Funafuti
Military branches:no regular military forces; Tuvalu Police Force (2008)

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