Wednesday, May 18, 2016


Zambia Population: 11,669,534« Last Country | Next Country »Country ListBackgroundThe territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the [British] South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. The new president launched an anticorruption investigation in 2002 to probe high-level corruption during the previous administration. In 2006-07, this task force successfully prosecuted four cases, including a landmark civil case in the UK in which former President CHILUBA and numerous others were found liable for USD 41 million. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his abrupt dth in August 2008, he was succeeded by his Vice-president Rupiah BANDA, who subsequently won a special presidential election in October 2008.Map data ©2009 Europa Technologies - Terms of Use
GeographyLandlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe.Loion:Southern Africa, st of AngolaGeographic coordinates:15 00 S, 30 00 r:total: 752,614 sq km
land: 740,724 sq km
water: 11,890 sq kmSize comparison: slightly larger than Texas
Land Boundaries:total: 5,664 km
border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 kmCoastline:0 km (landlocked)Maritime claims:none (landlocked)Climate:tropical; modified by altitude; rainy sson (October to April)Terrain:mostly high platu with some hills and mountainsElevation extremes:lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed loion in Mafinga Hills 2,301 mNatural resources:copper, cobalt, zinc, ld, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropowerLand use:arable land: 6.99%
permanent crops: 0.04%
other: 92.97% (2005)Irrigated land:1,560 sq km (2003)Natural hazards:periodic drought, tropical storms (November to April)Current Environment Issues:air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously thrtens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertifiion; lack of adequate water trtment presents human hlth risksInternational Environment Agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertifiion, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the S, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Population:11,669,534 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher dth rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)Age structure:0-14 yrs: 45.4% (male 2,659,572/female 2,634,379)
15-64 yrs: 52.3% (male 3,045,536/female 3,053,465)
65 yrs and over: 2.4% (male 115,662/female 160,920) (2008 est.)Median age:total: 16.9 yrs
male: 16.8 yrs
female: 17.1 yrs (2008 est.)Population growth rate:1.654% (2008 est.)Birth rate:40.52 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)Dth rate:21.35 dths/1,000 population (2008 est.)Net migration rate:-2.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 yrs: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 yrs: 1 male(s)/female
65 yrs and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 100.96 dths/1,000 live births
male: 105.73 dths/1,000 live births
female: 96.04 dths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 38.59 yrs
male: 38.49 yrs
female: 38.7 yrs (2008 est.)Total fertility rate:5.23 children born/woman (2008 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:16.5% (2003 est.)HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:920,000 (2003 est.)HIV/AIDS - dths:89,000 (2003 est.)Nationality:noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: ZambianEthnic groups:African 98.7%, Europn 1.1%, other 0.2%Religions:Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indious beliefs 1%Languages:English (official), major vernaculars - Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indious languagesLiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can rd and write English
total population: 80.6%
male: 86.8%
female: 74.8% (2003 est.)
GovernmentCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern RhodesiaGovernment type:republicCapital:name: Lusaka
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahd of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, stern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, WesternIndependence:24 October 1964 (from UK)National holiday:Independence Day, 24 October (1964)Constitution:24 August 1991; amended in 1996 to establish presidential term limitsLegal system:based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdictionSuffrage:18 yrs of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Rupiah BANDA (since 19 August 2008); Vice President George KUNDA (since 14 November 2008); note - President BANDA was acting president since the illness and eventual dth of President Levy MWANAWASA on 18 August 2008, he was then elected president on 30 October 2008 to serve out the remainder of MWANAWASA's term; the president is both the chief of state and hd of government
hd of government: President Rupiah BANDA (since 19 August 2008); Vice President George KUNDA (since 14 November 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-yr term (eligible for a second term); election last held 30 October 2008 (next to be held in 2011); vice president appointed by the president; note - due to the untimely dth of former President Levy MWANAWASA, rly elections were held to identify a replacement to serve out the remainder of his term
election results: Rupiah BANDA elected president; percent of vote - Rupiah BANDA 40.1%, Michael SATA 38.1%, Hakainde HICHILEMA 19.7%, Godfrey MIYANDA 0.8%, other 1.3%Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly (158 sts; 150 members are elected by popular vote, 8 members are appointed by the president, to serve five-yr terms)
elections: last held 28 September 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; sts by party - MMD 72, PF 44, UDA 27, ULP 2, NDF 1, independents 2; sts not determined 2Judicial branch:Supreme Court (the final court of appl; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hr civil and criminal cases)Political parties and lders:Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]; Heritage Party or [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [vacant]; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Party of Unity for Democracy and Development or PUDD [Dan PULE]; Reform Party [Nevers MUMBA]; United Democratic Alliance or UDA (a coalition of RP, ZADECO, PUDD, and ZRP); United Liberal Party or ULP [Sakwiba SIKOTA]; United National Independence Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA]; United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]; Zambia Democratic Congress or ZADECO [Langton SICHONE]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA]Political pressure groups and lders:NAInternational organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUR, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Donald E. BOOTH
embassy: corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (211) 250-955
FAX: [260] (211) 252-225
EconomyZambia's economy has experienced strong growth in recent yrs, with rl GDP growth in 2005-08 about 6% per yr. Privatization of government-owned copper mines in the 1990s relieved the government from covering mammoth losses erated by the industry and grtly improved the chances for copper mining to return to profitability and spur economic growth. Copper output has incrsed stdily since 2004, due to higher copper prices and foreign investment. In 2005, Zambia qualified for debt relief under the Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative, consisting of approximately USD 6 billion in debt relief. Zambia experienced a bumper harvest in 2007, which helped to boost GDP and agricultural exports and contain inflation. Although poverty continues to be significant problem in Zambia, its economy has strengthened, fturing single-digit inflation, a relatively stable currency, decrsing interest rates, and incrsing levels of trade. The decline in world commodity prices and demand will hurt GDP growth in 2009, and elections and campaign promises are likely to wken Zambia's improved fiscal stance.GDP (purchasing power parity):$17.83 billion (2008 est.)GDP (official exchange rate):$15.23 billion (2008 est.)GDP - rl growth rate:6.2% (2008 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$1,500 (2008 est.)GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 16.7%
industry: 26%
services: 57.3% (2008 est.)Labor force:5.093 million (2008 est.)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2004)Unemployment rate:50% (2000 est.)Population below poverty line:86% (1993)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 38.8% (2004)Distribution of family income - Gini index:50.8 (2004)Inflation rate (consumer prices):11.8% (2008 est.)Investment (gross fixed):26% of GDP (2008 est.)Budget:revenues: $3.777 billion
expenditures: $4.104 billion (2008 est.)Public debt:25.7% of GDP (2008 est.)Agriculture - products:
Industries:copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticultureIndustrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:9.289 billion kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - consumption:8.625 billion kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - exports:255 million kWh (2006)Electricity - imports:68 million kWh (2007 est.)Oil - production:150 bbl/day (2007 est.)Oil - consumption:14,760 bbl/day (2006 est.)Oil - exports:190.6 bbl/day (2005)Oil - imports:13,810 bbl/day (2005)Oil - proved reserves:NANatural gas - production:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)Current account balance:-$478 million (2008 est.)Exports:$5.632 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Exports - commodities:copper/cobalt 64%, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cottonExports - partners:Switzerland 41.8%, South Africa 12%, Thailand 5.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 5.3%, Egypt 5%, Saudi Arabia 4.7%, China 4.1% (2007)Imports:$4.423 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer; foodstuffs, clothingImports - partners:South Africa 47.4%, UAE 6.3%, China 6%, India 4.1%, UK 4% (2007)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$1.35 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Debt - external:$2.913 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$NAStock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$NAMarket value of publicly traded shares:$2.346 billion (31 December 2007)Currency ():Zambian kwacha (ZMK)Exchange rates:Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar - 3,512.9 (2008 est.), 3,990.2 (2007), 3,601.5 (2006), 4,463.5 (2005), 4,778.9 (2004)Fiscal yr:calendar yr
CommuniionsTele in use:91,800 (2007)Cellular in use:2.639 million (2007)Telephone system:eral assessment: facilities are aging but still among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country - 260; satellite rth stations - 2 sat (1 Indian Ocn and 1 Atlantic Ocn)Radio broadcast stations:AM 19, FM 5, shortwave 4 (2001)Television broadcast stations:9 (2001)Internet country :.zmInternet hosts:7,610 (2008)Internet users:500,000 (2007)
TransportationAirports:107 (2007)Airports (paved runways):total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)Airports (unpaved runways):total: 98
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 64
under 914 m: 29 (2007)Pipelines:oil 771 km (2007)Railways:total: 2,157 km
narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2006)Roadways:total: 91,440 km
paved: 20,117 km
unpaved: 71,323 km (2001)Waterways:2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2008)Ports and terminals:Mpulungu
Military branches:Zambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Zambian Army, Zambian Air Force, National Service (2008)Military service age and obligation:18 yrs of age for voluntary military service (16 yrs of age with parental consent); no conscription (2008)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 2,678,668
females age 16-49: 2,567,433 (2008 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 1,329,343
females age 16-49: 1,218,114 (2008 est.)

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