Wednesday, May 18, 2016


Tonga Population: 119,009
BackgroundTonga - unique among Pacific nations - never completely lost its indious governance. The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from the protectorate and joined the Commonwlth of Nations in 1970. Tonga remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.
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GeographyArchipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited).Loion:Ocnia, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocn, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New ZlandGeographic coordinates:20 00 S, 175 00 WAr:total: 748 sq km
land: 718 sq km
water: 30 sq kmSize comparison: four times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries:0 kmCoastline:419 kmMaritime claims:territorial s: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of ationClimate:tropical; modified by trade winds; warm sson (December to May), cool sson (May to December)Terrain:most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic baseElevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocn 0 m
highest point: unnamed loion on Kao Island 1,033 mNatural resources:fish, fertile soilLand use:arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 14.67%
other: 65.33% (2005)Irrigated land:NANatural hazards:cyclones (October to April); rthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ouCurrent Environment Issues:deforestation results as more and more land is being clred for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting thrtens native s turtle populationsInternational Environment Agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertifiion, Law of the S, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
PeoplePopulation:119,009 (July 2008 est.)Age structure:0-14 yrs: 33.7% (male 20,484/female 19,633)
15-64 yrs: 62% (male 36,699/female 37,108)
65 yrs and over: 4.3% (male 2,135/female 2,950) (2008 est.)Median age:total: 21.8 yrs
male: 21.3 yrs
female: 22.3 yrs (2008 est.)Population growth rate:1.669% (2008 est.)Birth rate:21.81 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)Dth rate:5.12 dths/1,000 population (2008 est.)Net migration rate:NA (2008 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 yrs: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 yrs: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 yrs and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 11.88 dths/1,000 live births
male: 13.07 dths/1,000 live births
female: 10.63 dths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 70.44 yrs
male: 67.9 yrs
female: 73.1 yrs (2008 est.)Total fertility rate:2.5 children born/woman (2008 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:NAHIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NAHIV/AIDS - dths:NANationality:noun: Tongan(s)
adjective: TonganEthnic groups:Polynesian, EuropnsReligions:Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)Languages:Tongan, EnglishLiteracy:definition: can rd and write Tongan and/or English
total population: 98.9%
male: 98.8%
female: 99% (1999 est.)
GovernmentCountry name:conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
conventional short form: Tonga
local long form: Pule'anga Tonga
local short form: Tonga
former: Friendly IslandsGovernment type:constitutional monarchyCapital:name: Nuku'alofa
geographic coordinates: 21 08 S, 175 12 W
time difference: UTC+13 (18 hours ahd of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:3 island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu, Vava'uIndependence:4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)National holiday:Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)Constitution:4 November 1875; revised 1 January 1967Legal system:based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdictionSuffrage:21 yrs of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: King George TUPOU V (since 11 September 2006)
hd of government: Prime Minister Dr. Feleti SEVELE (since 11 February 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Viliami TANGI (since 16 May 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of 14 members, 10 appointed by the monarch for life; four appointed from among the elected members of the Legislative Assembly, including two ch from the nobles' and peoples' representatives serving three-yr terms
note: there is also a Privy Council that consists of the monarch, the cabinet, and two governors
elections: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the monarchLegislative branch:unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Al (32 sts - 14 reserved for cabinet ministers sitting ex officio, nine for nobles selected by the country's 33 nobles, and nine elected by popular vote; members serve three-yr terms)
elections: last held on 23-24 April 2008 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: Peoples Representatives: percent of vote - independents 54%, THRDM 28%, PDP 14%; sts - THRDM 4, independents 3, PDP 2Judicial branch:Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch); Court of Appl (Chief Justice and high court justices from overss chosen and approved by Privy Council)Political parties and lders:Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement or THRDM [Uliti UATA]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tesina FUKO]Political pressure groups and lders:Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote V, chairman]; Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]International organization participation:ACP, ADB, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Fekitamoeloa 'UTOIKAMANU
chancery: 250 st 51st Street, New York, NY 10022
telephone: [1] (917) 369-1025
FAX: [1] (917) 369-1024
consulate(s) eral: San FranDiplomatic representation from the US:the US does not have an embassy in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga
EconomyTonga has a small, open, South Pacific island economy. It has a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, vanilla bns, and yams are the main crops, and agricultural exports, including fish, make up two-thirds of total exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zland. The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from Tongan communities overss to offset its trade deficit. Tourism is the second-largest source of hard currency rnings following remittances. Tonga had 41,000 visitors in 2004. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector, especially the encouragement of investment, and is committing incrsed funds for hlth and eduion. Tonga has a rsonably sound basic infrastructure and well-developed social services. High unemployment among the young, a continuing upturn in inflation, pressures for democratic reform, and rising civil service expenditures are major issues facing the government.GDP (purchasing power parity):$521.5 million (2008 est.)GDP (official exchange rate):$258 million (2008 est.)GDP - rl growth rate:-3.5% (2008 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$4,400 (2008 est.)GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 25%
industry: 17%
services: 57% (FY05/06 est.)Labor force:33,910 (2003)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 31.8%
industry: 30.6%
services: 2,003% (2003 est.)Unemployment rate:13% (FY03/04 est.)Population below poverty line:24% (FY03/04)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%Inflation rate (consumer prices):5.9% (2007 est.)Budget:revenues: $80.48 million
expenditures: $109.8 million (FY07/08 est.)Agriculture - products:
Industries:tourism, construction, fishingIndustrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:43 million kWh (2007 est.)Electricity - consumption:39.99 million kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2007)Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2007 est.)Oil - production:0 bbl/day (2007 est.)Oil - consumption:870 bbl/day (2006 est.)Oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2007 est.)Oil - imports:1,035 bbl/day (2005)Oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2007 est.)Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2007 est.)Current account balance:-$23 million (2007 est.)Exports:$22 million f.o.b. (2006)Exports - commodities:squash, fish, vanilla bns, root cropsExports - partners:US 36.7%, Japan 21.6%, NZ 10.1%, Fiji 5.8%, Samoa 4.9% (2007)Imports:$139 million f.o.b. (2006)Imports - commodities:foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicalsImports - partners:Fiji 32.5%, NZ 27.5%, US 9%, Australia 7.4%, China 5% (2007)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$40.83 million (yrend, FY 04/05)Debt - external:$80.7 million (2004)Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrency ():pa'anga (TOP)Exchange rates:pa'anga (TOP) per US dollar - NA (2007), 2.0277 (2006), 1.96 (2005), 1.9716 (2004), 2.142 (2003)Fiscal yr:1 July - 30 June
CommuniionsTele in use:21,000 (2007)Cellular in use:46,500 (2007)Telephone system:eral assessment: competition between Tonga Telecommuniions Corporation (TCC) and Shoreline Communiions Tonga (SCT) is accelerating expansion of telecommuniions; SCT recently granted authority to develop high-speed digital service for telephone, Internet, and television
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 40 tele per 100 persons; fully automatic switched network
international: country - 676; satellite rth station - 1 sat (Pacific Ocn) (2004)Radio broadcast stations:AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)Television broadcast stations:3 (2004)Internet country :.toInternet hosts:19,231 (2008)Internet users:8,400 (2007)
TransportationAirports:6 (2007)Airports (paved runways):total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2007)Airports (unpaved runways):total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2007)Roadways:total: 680 km
paved: 184 km
unpaved: 496 km (2000)Merchant marine:total: 13
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 8, carrier 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1
foreign-owned: 4 (Australia 1, Cyprus 1, Switzerland 1, UK 1) (2008)Ports and terminals:Nuku'alofa
Military branches:Tonga Defense Services (TDS): Land Force (Royal Guard), Naval Force (includes Royal Marines, Air Wing) (2008)Military service age and obligation:18 yrs of age (est.); no conscription (2008)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 32,053
females age 16-49: 30,981 (2008 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 25,520
females age 16-49: 26,893 (2008 est.)

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