Wednesday, May 18, 2016


Tur Population: 71,892,808
BackgroundModern Tur was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defted Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later ed with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian ldership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the pceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in ch case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Tur intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Tur recognizes. A separatist insurcy begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's lder in 1999, the insurts largely withdrew from Tur mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its csefire and attacks attributed to the KGK incrsed. Tur joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Tur became an associate member of the Europn Community. Over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy; it began accession membership talks with the Europn Union in 2005.
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GeographyStrategic loion controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, S of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegn Ss; Mount Ararat, the ledary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far stern portion of the country.Loion:Southstern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Tur west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black S, between Buaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegn S and the Mediterrann S, between Greece and SyriaGeographic coordinates:39 00 N, 35 00 r:total: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq kmSize comparison: slightly larger than Texas
Land Boundaries:total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Buaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 kmCoastline:7,200 kmMaritime claims:territorial s: 6 nm in the Aegn S; 12 nm in Black S and in Mediterrann S
exclusive economic zone: in Black S only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSRClimate:temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interiorTerrain:high central platu (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain rangesElevation extremes:lowest point: Mediterrann S 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 mNatural resources:coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropowerLand use:arable land: 29.81%
permanent crops: 3.39%
other: 66.8% (2005)Irrigated land:52,150 sq km (2003)Natural hazards:severe rthquakes, especially in northern Tur, along an arc extending from the S of Marmara to Lake VanCurrent Environment Issues:water pollution from dumping of chemicals and deterts; air pollution, particularly in urban ars; deforestation; concern for oil spills from incrsing Bosporus ship trafficInternational Environment Agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Trty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertifiion, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modifiion
PeoplePopulation:71,892,808 (July 2008 est.)Age structure:0-14 yrs: 24.4% (male 8,937,515/female 8,608,375)
15-64 yrs: 68.6% (male 25,030,793/female 24,253,312)
65 yrs and over: 7% (male 2,307,236/female 2,755,576) (2008 est.)Median age:total: 29 yrs
male: 28.8 yrs
female: 29.2 yrs (2008 est.)Population growth rate:1.013% (2008 est.)Birth rate:16.15 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)Dth rate:6.02 dths/1,000 population (2008 est.)Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 yrs: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 yrs: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 yrs and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2008 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 36.98 dths/1,000 live births
male: 40.44 dths/1,000 live births
female: 33.34 dths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.14 yrs
male: 70.67 yrs
female: 75.73 yrs (2008 est.)Total fertility rate:1.87 children born/woman (2008 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NAHIV/AIDS - dths:NANationality:noun: Turk(s)
adjective: TurkishEthnic groups:Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)Religions:Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)Languages:Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian note: there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the Europn part of TurLiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can rd and write
total population: 87.4%
male: 95.3%
female: 79.6% (2004 est.)
GovernmentCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Tur
conventional short form: Tur
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: TurkiyeGovernment type:republican parliamentary democracyCapital:name: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahd of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in OctoberAdministrative divisions:81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Arin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel (Mersin), Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, ZonguldakIndependence:29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)National holiday:Republic Day, 29 October (1923)Constitution:7 November 1982; amended 17 May 1987; note - amendment passed by referendum concerning presidential elections on 21 October 2007Legal system:civil law system derived from various Europn continental legal systems; note - member of the Europn Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Tur claims limited derogations on the ratified Europn Convention on Human Rights; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdictionSuffrage:18 yrs of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)
hd of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Cemil CICEK (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Hayati YAZICI (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Nazim EKREN (since 29 August 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected directly for a five-yr term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: on 28 August 2007 National Assembly elected Abdullah GUL president on the third ballot; National Assembly vote - 339
note: in October 2007 Turkish voters approved a referendum package of constitutional amendments including a provision for direct presidential electionsLegislative branch:unicameral Grand National Assembly of Tur or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 sts; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-yr terms)
elections: last held on 22 July 2007 (next to be held on November 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 46.7%, C 20.8%, M 14.3%, independents 5.2%, and other 13.0%; sts by party - AKP 341, C 112, M 71, independents 26; note - sts by party as of 17 December 2007 - AKP 340, C 87, M 70, DTP 20, DSP 13, independents 6, other 12, vacant 2 (DTP entered parliament as independents; DSP entered parliament on C's party list); only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary stsJudicial branch:Constitutional Court; High Court of Appls (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appls; Military High Administrative CourtPolitical parties and lders:Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party) or Anavatan [Salih UZUN]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Ahmet TURK]; Democratic Society Party or DTP [Nurettin DEMIRTAS]; Felicity Party or SP [Numan KURTULMUS] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party); Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Nationalist Movement Party or M [Devlet BAHCELI] (sometimes translated as Nationalist Action Party); People's Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasar Nuri OZTURK]; Republican People's Party or C [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic People's Party or S [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party or DYP [Suleyman SOYLU] (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party); Young Party or GP [Cem Cengiz UZAN]
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Tur had on 1 December 2004Political pressure groups and lders:Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer Cihad VARDAN]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugurl KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa KUMLU]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Arzuhan Dogan YALCINDAG]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]International organization participation:ADB (nonregional members), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), PC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, G-20, IA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, I, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, N, NSG, OAS (observer), OE, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, Ziplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Nabi SENSOY
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) eral: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador James F. JEFFREY
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) eral: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular At in Izmir
EconomyTur's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for more than 35% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communiion. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance within Tur's export mix. Rl GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many yrs, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. The economy is turning around with the implementation of economic reforms, and 2004 GDP growth rched 9%, followed by roughly 5% annual growth from 2005-07. Inflation fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30-yr low - but climbed back to 8.5% in 2007. Despite the strong economic gains from 2002-07, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high external debt. Further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost foreign direct investment. The stock value of FDI currently stands at about $85 billion. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. In 2007, Turkish financial markets wthered significant domestic political turmoil, including turbulence sparked by controversy over the selection of former Foreign Minister Abdullah GUL as Tur's 11th president and the possible closure of the Justice and Development Party (AKP). Economic fundamentals are sound, marked by moderate economic growth and foreign direct investment. Nevertheless, the Turkish economy may be faced with more negative economic indiors in 2009 as a result of the global economic slowdown. In addition, Tur's high current account deficit lves the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence.GDP (purchasing power parity):$930.9 billion (2008 est.)GDP (official exchange rate):$798.9 billion (2008 est.)GDP - rl growth rate:4.5% (2008 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$12,900 (2008 est.)GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 8.5%
industry: 28.6%
services: 62.9% (2008 est.)Labor force:23.21 million note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2008 est.)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 29.5%
industry: 24.7%
services: 45.8% (2005)Unemployment rate:7.9% plus underemployment of 4% (2008 est.)Population below poverty line:20% (2002)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 34.1% (2003)Distribution of family income - Gini index:43.6 (2003)Inflation rate (consumer prices):10.2% (2008 est.)Investment (gross fixed):21% of GDP (2008 est.)Budget:revenues: $164.6 billion
expenditures: $176.3 billion (2008 est.)Public debt:37.1% of GDP (2008 est.)Agriculture - products:
Industries:textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paperIndustrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:181.6 billion kWh (2007 est.)Electricity - consumption:141.5 billion kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - exports:2.576 billion kWh (2007 est.)Electricity - imports:863 million kWh (2007 est.)Oil - production:42,800 bbl/day (2007 est.)Oil - consumption:676,600 bbl/day (2007 est.)Oil - exports:114,600 bbl/day (2005)Oil - imports:714,100 bbl/day (2005)Oil - proved reserves:300 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)Natural gas - production:893 million cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - consumption:36.6 billion cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - exports:31 million cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - imports:35.83 billion cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - proved reserves:8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)Current account balance:-$51.68 billion (2008 est.)Exports:$141.8 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Exports - commodities:apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipmentExports - partners:Germany 11.2%, UK 8.1%, Italy 7%, France 5.6%, Russia 4.4%, Spain 4.3% (2007)Imports:$204.8 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipmentImports - partners:Russia 13.8%, Germany 10.3%, China 7.8%, Italy 5.9%, US 4.8%, France 4.6% (2007)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$82.82 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Debt - external:$294.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$124.8 billion (2008 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$13.97 billion (2008 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$286.6 billion (31 December 2007)Currency ():Turkish lira (TRY); old Turkish lira (TRL) before 1 January 2005Exchange rates:Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar - 1.3179 (2008 est.), 1.319 (2007), 1.4286 (2006), 1.3436 (2005), 1.4255 (2004) note: on 1 January 2005 the old Turkish lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish lira (TRY) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish liraFiscal yr:calendar yr
CommuniionsTele in use:18.413 million (2007)Cellular in use:61.976 million (2007)Telephone system:eral assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially with cellular tele
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid incrse in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communiion between urban centers; remote ars are rched by a domestic satellite system; the of subscribers to mobile-cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
international: country - 90; international service is provided by the S-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterrann and Black Ss that link Tur with Italy, Greece, Israel, Buaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite rth stations - 12 sat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)Radio broadcast stations:AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001)Television broadcast stations:635 (plus 2,934 repters) (1995)Internet country :.trInternet hosts:2.667 million (2008)Internet users:13.15 million (2006)
TransportationAirports:117 (2007)Airports (paved runways):total: 90
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 19
under 914 m: 4 (2007)Airports (unpaved runways):total: 27
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 17 (2007)Heliports:18 (2007)Pipelines:gas 7,511 km; oil 3,636 km (2007)Railways:total: 8,697 km
standard gauge: 8,697 km 1.435-m gauge (1,920 km electrified) (2006)Roadways:total: 426,951 km (includes 1,987 km of expressways) (2006)Waterways:1,200 km (2008)Merchant marine:total: 612
by type: bulk carrier 101, cargo 281, chemical tanker 70, combination ore/oil 1, container 35, liquefied gas 7, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 51, petroleum tanker 31, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 28, specialized tanker 2
foreign-owned: 8 (Cyprus 2, Germany 1, Greece 1, Italy 3, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 595 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 6, Bahamas 8, Belize 15, Cambodia 26, Comoros 8, Dominica 5, Georgia 14, Greece 1, Isle of Man 2, Italy 1, Kiribati 1, Liberia 7, Malta 176, Marshall Islands 50, Moldova 3, Netherlands 1, Netherlands Antilles 10, Panama 94, Russia 80, Saint Kitts and Nevis 35, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 20, Sierra Leone 15, Slovakia 10, Tuvalu 2, UK 2, unknown 2) (2008)Ports and terminals:Aliaga, Diliskelesi, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mercin Limani, Nemrut Limani
MilitaryA "National Security Policy Document" adopted in October 2005 incrses the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) role in internal security, augmenting the eral Directorate of Security and darmerie eral Command (Jandarma); the TSK ldership continues to play a role in politics and considers itself guardian of Tur's secular state; in April 2007, it warned the ruling party about any pro-Islamic appointments; despite on-going negotiations on EU accession since October 2005, progress has been limited in establishing required civilian supremacy over the military; primary domestic thrts are listed as fundamentalism (with the definition in some dispute with the civilian government), separatism (the Kurdish problem), and the extreme left wing; Ankara strongly opposed establishment of an autonomous Kurdish region; an overhaul of the Turkish Land Forces Command (TLFC) taking place under the "Force 2014" program is to produce 20-30% smaller, more highly trained forces characterized by grter mobility and firepower and capable of joint and combined operations; the TLFC has taken on incrsing international pcekeeping responsibilities, and took charge of a NATO International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) command in Afghanistan in April 2007; the Turkish Navy is a regional naval power that wants to develop the capability to project power beyond Tur's coastal waters; the Navy is hvily involved in NATO, multinational, and UN operations; its roles include control of territorial waters and security for s lines of communiions; the Turkish Air Force adopted an "Aerospace and Missile Defense Concept" in 2002 and has initiated project work on an integrated missile defense system; Air Force priorities include attaining a modern deployable, survivable, and sustainable force structure, and establishing a sustainable command and control system (2008)Military branches:Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri, TKK), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri, TDK; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Force (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri, THK) (2008)Military service age and obligation:20 yrs of age (2004)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 20,213,205
females age 16-49: 19,432,688 (2008 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 17,011,635
females age 16-49: 16,433,364 (2008 est.)

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