Wednesday, May 18, 2016


Uzbekistan Population: 27,345,026
BackgroundRussia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral S and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
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GeographyAlong with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world.Loion:Central Asia, north of AfghanistanGeographic coordinates:41 00 N, 64 00 r:total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq kmSize comparison: slightly larger than California
Land Boundaries:total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 kmCoastline:0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral S with a 420 km shorelineMaritime claims:none (doubly landlocked)Climate:mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in stTerrain:mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in st surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral S in westElevation extremes:lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 mNatural resources:natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, ld and zinc, tungsten, molybdenumLand use:arable land: 10.51%
permanent crops: 0.76%
other: 88.73% (2005)Irrigated land:42,810 sq km (2003)Natural hazards:NACurrent Environment Issues:shrinkage of the Aral S is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the incrsingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertifiion; water pollution from industrial wastes and the hvy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human hlth disorders; incrsing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclr processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDTInternational Environment Agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertifiion, Endangered Species, Environmental Modifiion, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
PeoplePopulation:27,345,026 (July 2008 est.)Age structure:0-14 yrs: 29% (male 4,047,918/female 3,870,346)
15-64 yrs: 66% (male 8,971,017/female 9,079,170)
65 yrs and over: 5% (male 588,498/female 788,077) (2008 est.)Median age:total: 24.3 yrs
male: 23.8 yrs
female: 24.8 yrs (2008 est.)Population growth rate:0.965% (2008 est.)Birth rate:17.99 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)Dth rate:5.3 dths/1,000 population (2008 est.)Net migration rate:-3.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 yrs: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 yrs: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 yrs and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 24.23 dths/1,000 live births
male: 28.61 dths/1,000 live births
female: 19.58 dths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.69 yrs
male: 68.69 yrs
female: 74.87 yrs (2008 est.)Total fertility rate:2.01 children born/woman (2008 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:11,000 (2003 est.)HIV/AIDS - dths:fewer than 500 (2003 est.)Nationality:noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: UzbekistaniEthnic groups:Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)Religions:Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), stern Orthodox 9%, other 3%Languages:Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can rd and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.6%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
GovernmentCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: Ozbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist RepublicGovernment type:republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branchCapital:name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 69 18 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahd of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)Independence:1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)National holiday:Independence Day, 1 September (1991)Constitution:adopted 8 December 1992Legal system:based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdictionSuffrage:18 yrs of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
hd of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-yr term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-yr term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held 23 December 2007 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Asliddin RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom T0SHMUHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%Legislative branch:bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 sts; 84 members are elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; to serve five-yr terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (120 sts; members elected by popular vote to serve five-yr terms)
elections: last held 26 December 2004 and 9 January 2005 (next to be held December 2009)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; sts by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; sts by party - LDPU 41, NDP 32, Fidokorlar 17, MTP 11, Adolat 9, unaffiliated 10
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOVJudicial branch:Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)Political parties and lders:Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TOSHMUHAMEDOVA]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milliy Tiklanish) or MTP [Hurshid DOSMUHAMMEDOV]; Fidokorlar National Democratic Party (Self-Sacrificers) [Ahtam TURSUNOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHADMANOV; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV]Political pressure groups and lders:Agrarian and Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurahim POLAT, chairman]; Committee for the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] (was banned 9 December 1992); Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora HIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]International organization participation:ADB, CIS, CSTO, EC, PC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulaziz KAMILOV
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) eral: New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Richard B. NORLAND
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
EconomyUzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies hvily on cotton production as the major source of export rnings and has come under incrsing international criticism for the use of child labor in its annual cotton harvest. Other major export rners include gold, natural gas, and oil. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors msures that often incrse, not decrse, its control over business decisions. A sharp incrse in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry, as well as incrsed cooperation with South Kor in the rlm of civil aviation, may boost growth prospects. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance," which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown incrsed interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In 2006, Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Trty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC), which it subsequently left in 2008, both organizations dominated by Russia. Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek tax laws and have frozen their assets.GDP (purchasing power parity):$72.76 billion (2008 est.)GDP (official exchange rate):$26.62 billion (2008 est.)GDP - rl growth rate:8.3% (2008 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$2,700 (2008 est.)GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 28.2%
industry: 33.9%
services: 37.9% (2008 est.)Labor force:15.28 million (2008 est.)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 44%
industry: 20%
services: 36% (1995)Unemployment rate:0.9% officially by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed (2008 est.)Population below poverty line:33% (2004 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)Distribution of family income - Gini index:36.8 (2003)Inflation rate (consumer prices):13.5% officially, but 38% based on analysis of consumer prices (2008 est.)Budget:revenues: $8.005 billion
expenditures: $8.127 billion (2008 est.)Public debt:13.6% of GDP (2008 est.)Agriculture - products:
Industries:textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicalsIndustrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:48.79 billion kWh (2007 est.)Electricity - consumption:42.23 billion kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - exports:11.52 billion kWh (2006 est.)Electricity - imports:11.44 billion kWh (2006 est.)Oil - production:99,260 bbl/day (2007 est.)Oil - consumption:157,100 bbl/day (2006 est.)Oil - exports:11,940 bbl/day (2005)Oil - imports:31,440 bbl/day (2005)Oil - proved reserves:594 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)Natural gas - production:65.19 billion cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - consumption:51.18 billion cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - exports:14.01 billion cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2007 est.)Natural gas - proved reserves:1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)Current account balance:$5.726 billion (2008 est.)Exports:$9.96 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Exports - commodities:cotton, gold, energy products, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobilesExports - partners:Russia 22.4%, Poland 10.4%, Tur 9.4%, Kazakhstan 6.1%, Hungary 6%, China 5.6%, Ukraine 4.8%, Bangladesh 4.3% (2007)Imports:$6.5 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metalsImports - partners:Russia 30.1%, China 13.3%, South Kor 13%, Germany 6.3%, Kazakhstan 6.2%, Ukraine 4% (2007)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$10.15 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Debt - external:$4.052 billion (31 December 2008 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$NAStock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$NAMarket value of publicly traded shares:$36.89 million (2005)Currency ():soum (UZS)Exchange rates:Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar - 1,317 (2008 est.), 1,263.8 (2007), 1,219.8 (2006), 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004)Fiscal yr:calendar yr
CommuniionsTele in use:1.793 million (2005)Cellular in use:5.8 million (2007)Telephone system:eral assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization
domestic: the main line telecommuniions system is dilapidated and telephone density is low; the state-owned telecommuniions company, Uzbektelecom, is working on improving main line services; mobile services are growing swiftly, with the subscriber base more than doubling in 2007 to 5.8 million
international: country - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by lsed connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communiions (2007)Radio broadcast stations:AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 3 (2006)Television broadcast stations:28 (includes 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent and approximately 20 stations in regional capitals) (2006)Internet country :.uzInternet hosts:38,183 (2008)Internet users:1.2 million (2007)
TransportationAirports:54 (2007)Airports (paved runways):total: 33
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2007)Airports (unpaved runways):total: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 19 (2007)Pipelines:gas 9,725 km; oil 868 km (2007)Railways:total: 3,950 km
broad gauge: 3,950 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2006)Roadways:total: 86,496 km
paved: 75,511 km
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)Waterways:1,100 km (2008)Ports and terminals:Termiz (Amu Darya)
Military branches:Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National GuardMilitary service age and obligation:18 yrs of age for compulsory military service; 1-yr conscript service obligation; moving toward a professional military, but conscription will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2007)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 7,480,484
females age 16-49: 7,542,017 (2008 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 5,684,540
females age 16-49: 6,432,976 (2008 est.)

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